1.1. Adaptation and Mitigation Strategies: Supporting European climate policy
Objective: The core objectives of ADAM (ADaptation And Mitigation) are:
– To assess the extent to which existing and evolving EU (and world) mitigation and adaptation policies can achieve a tolerable transition (a ‘soft landing’) to a world with a global climate no warmer than 2 degrees C above pre-industrial levels, and to identify their associated costs and effectiveness, including an assessment of the damages avoided compared to a scenario where climate change continues unchecked to 5 C.
– To develop and appraise a portfolio of longer term strategic policy options that could contribute to addressing identified shortfalls both between existing mitigation policies and the achievement of the EU’s 2 C target, and between existing adaptation policy development and implied EU goals and targets for adaptation.
– To develop a novel Policy-options Appraisal Framework and apply it both to existing and evolving policies, and to new, long-term strategic policy options, so as to inform: European and international climate protection strategy in post-2012 Kyoto negotiations, a re-structuring of International Development Assistance, the EU electricity sector and regional spatial planning.
The ADAM project will lead to a better understanding of the synergies, trade-offs and conflicts that exist between adaptation and mitigation policies at multiple scales. Crucially, ADAM will support EU policy development in the next stage of the development of the Kyoto Protocol, in particular negotiations around a post-2012 global climate policy regime, and will inform the emergence of new adaptation strategies for Europe .
The main impact of the ADAM project will be to improve the quality and relevance of scientific and stakeholder contributions to the development and evaluation of climate change policy options within the European Commission. This will help the Commission to deliver on its current medium-term climate policy objectives and help inform its development of a longer-term climate strategy.
Further Information:

1.2. A New Policy Framework to Ensure Sustainable Biomass Production
6 July 2006 , Science for Environment Policy
The use of renewable energies is one of the most important alternatives that can be implemented to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and ensure a sustainable energy supply. The EU has committed to a 12% target for renewable energy by 2010. Biomass is the major renewable energy source in Europe , providing two thirds of the total energy produced from renewables, and meeting 4% of the total EU’s primary energy consumption in 2003. Biomass is organic matter, including trees, arable crops, algae, agricultural and forest residues, effluents, sewage sludge, and manure, which after a conversion process can be used to provide heat, electricity or transport fuel depending on the conversion technology and the type of biomass. Nevertheless, a substantial rise in biomass consumption and consequent production from agriculture, forest and waste might introduce additional pressure on farmland and forest biodiversity as well as on soil and water resources. It could also counteract other future environmental policies aiming at waste minimisation or environmentally orientated farming.
A recent report by the European Environment Agency has assessed how much biomass could technically be available for energy production in Europe without increasing pressure on the environment. To this end, the authors have developed a set of environmental criteria to be met in order to minimise any additional pressure on the environment from biomass production. These criteria were used as assumptions for modelling the production of environmentally-compatible biomass production potential for the EU-25 for 2010, 2020 and 2030.
The main findings of the report were:
Europe could produce 190 Mtoe (million tonnes of oil equivalent) of primary biomass, in an environmentally viable manner, by 2010. This could reach almost 300 Mtoe by 2030. These estimates would be sufficient to reach the European renewable energy targets.
The main drivers of the increase in biomass production are productivity increases and the assumed liberalisation of the agricultural sector, which would result in additional areas available for the production of biomass.
In the short term, the largest potential for biomass production comes from the waste and residue sectors; however long-term it is likely to come from agriculture.
It is crucial that Europe manages any rise in the production of biomass in line with other EC policies and objectives aiming to protect biodiversity and reduce waste.
There are also possibilities for synergies between the large scale production of biomass and nature conservation. For example, innovative biomass crops systems and use of perennial grasses and short rotation forestry could combine high yields with relatively low environmental pressures. They can even be beneficial as they could add diversity and reduce pesticide use.
According to the report, complementary assessments should be performed at a more regional and local scale. Further research should also be carried out regarding the impacts of climate change on the availability and production of biomass.
The report concludes that, technically, significant amounts of biomass can be made available to meet the EU renewable energy targets, even if stringent environmental constraints are applied. However, in order to achieve this, environmental guidelines need to be introduced as part of the planning process at local, national and European level.
For more information: (2006-p. 72).

1.3. Implications of EU Enlargement on the CO2 Emissions Targets
6 July 2006 , Science for Environment Policy
During the last century, the Earth’s average surface temperature rose by around 0.6°C. There is increasing evidence that most of the global warming that has occurred over the last 50 years is attributable to human activities. In order to tackle climate change, in accordance with the terms of the Kyoto Protocol, the European Union has committed itself to reducing the emissions of greenhouse gases (GHGs) by a global 8% by 2008-2012 compared to the 1990 level. The recent enlargement of the EU will have an impact on trade, economy and the environment through free trade and increased factor mobility (the mobility of production factors such as labour and capital). Previous studies on the enlargement of the EU focused on economic welfare rather than the interaction between trade and the environment. Further work is therefore necessary in this area.
Recently, a Dutch study has investigated the potential consequences of the enlargement of the EU on the trade and emissions of greenhouse gases, and on the Kyoto emissions targets for GHGs. To this end, a general equilibrium model was developed in order to examine the impacts under different scenarios. This type of model was chosen because it is considered to be the best way to anticipate adjustments in the economy and it allows the full impact of international trade on the environment to be considered.
The current analysis provides some interesting results:
It confirms, as expected, that under the specific context studied, free trade improves economic welfare because production takes place in a more efficient way. Contrary to what had previously been suggested, increased production does not necessarily result in increased greenhouse gas emissions. The overall environmental impacts of free trade would depend on the specific industry and the pollutants.
The mobility of factors (capital, labour) leads to a more efficient allocation of resources and geographical specialisation, thus contributing positively to the economy as well. On the other hand, this could generate an increase in greenhouse gas emissions because more agricultural production (a highly polluting sector) is predicted to take place in the EU under the considered scenario. But this potential negative impact would depend on the specific EU agriculture policy.
In both the old EU and the central and eastern European countries, the emission reduction targets of the Kyoto Protocol lead to less agricultural production and to a more specialized production of industrial goods and services in the EU because of its comparative advantages.
The current study provides new insights about the possible consequences that EU enlargement may have on greenhouse gas emissions and reduction targets. The authors conclude that, although higher levels of production tend to increase energy consumption and emissions, the expected better allocation of factors would be beneficial to the environment. Nevertheless, proper environmental policies would need to be imposed in both the Central and Eastern European countries and the EU in order to reduce the pressures on the environment.
Source: Xueqin Zhu and Ekko van Ierland (2006) « The enlargement of the European Union: effects on trade and emissions of greenhouse gases », Ecological economics 57(1): 1-14.

1.4. EU Climate Change: measures to reduce climate change impact of civil aviation
6 July 2006
In a report adopted by the European Parliament, MEPs call EU to take effective measures with a view to reduce the climate change impact of civil aviation. Parliament advocates an aviation scheme as well as its inclusion in the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS).
As regards the scope of the aviation scheme, the Parliament backs the immediate introduction of kerosene taxes by requiring a tax on all domestic and intra-EU flights (with the possibility to exempt all carriers on routes on which non-EU carriers operate). MEps agreed that “tax exemptions on air transport and other imbalances lead to very unfair competition between aviation and other transport sectors, and therefore ending the VAT exemption would further level the playing field, and bring fiscal as well as environmental benefits.” The report underlines also that a comprehensive package of measures is needed to address the impact of aviation on the climate, as well as applying the “polluter pays” principle.
Concerning the inclusion of aviation into the EU Emissions Trading Scheme (ETS), the report recognises that emissions trading has the potential to play a role as part of a comprehensive package of measures to address the climate impact of aviation, provided it is appropriately designed. It stress that the environmental effectiveness of any emissions trading scheme will depend on it having sufficiently broad geographical scope; a rigorous cap; full auctioning of initial allocation; the technological level and early actions taken into account in the allocation; and addressing full climate impact.
Finally, the report proposes that aviation should be eventually incorporated into a wider ETS and special conditions should be therefore applied to ensure it does not distort the market to the detriment of less protected sectors. It stresses that, if aviation is to be eventually incorporated into the wider ETS, there should at least be a pilot phase of a separate scheme covering the period 2008-2012.
More information about this subject can be found on the Environment section of


2.1. G8 Summit : Energy Security Yes, But Climate Security Too
10 July 2006 , IPS
Legislators from industrialised and emerging countries want the G8 heads of government to address climate change, clean energy and sustainable development when they gather next Monday in St Petersburg .
The appeal coincides with Russian foreign minister Sergei Lavrov’s remarks in Moscow that as host of this year’s G8, Russian President Vladimir Putin had suggested putting energy security at the top of the summit agenda.
"The objective is to coordinate a strategy, which entails shared responsibility and shared risks and benefits," Lavrov said in an interview with the widely read daily Rossiiskaya Gazeta.
Legislators from 13 countries who met in Brussels Jul. 7-8 at the invitation of GLOBE International (Global Legislators Organisation for a Balanced Environment) welcomed the decision of the Russian government to build on the last G8 Summit in Gleneagles by focusing on the issue of energy security.
But they pointed out that energy security and climate security need be dealt with together. "If we do not successfully address both, we risk undermining our development, economic and security goals."
In a statement after two days of intensive discussions at the European Parliament, they said: "Climate security and energy security are inextricably linked. Energy efficiency and diversification of energy sources are key responses to both."
Legislators came from the Group of eight (G8) countries — Britain, France, Germany, Italy, Russia, the United States, Canada and Japan — and the ‘plus five’ comprising Brazil, China, India, Mexico and South Africa.
The call of legislators that form the ‘G8 plus 5 climate change dialogue’ is based on simple logic: Developing countries are expected to contribute 39 percent of global emissions by 2010, and independent estimates are that in the next 24 years 50 percent of global energy investment will be in developing countries.
"There is no way out. In India we need energy for development and the only way is to find ways to reconcile development needs and environmental imperatives," said former Indian environment minister Suresh Prabhu.
China is confronted with a similar dilemma. But Zhang Wantai, vice-chairman of the environment protection and resources conservation committee of the National People’s Congress said that "resources conservation and environment friendly society" were the future national development model.
What can be done at the international level to help ensure low carbon investments? The World Bank’s Global Environment Facility (GEF) and Clean Development Mechanism within the framework of the UN Climate Change Convention (UNFCCC) are useful and important but almost peripheral given the scale of investment.
"The challenge is to identify practical actions that could make a difference in encouraging low carbon investments in rapidly increasing energy production in emerging and developing economies," says a study by Chatham House (Royal Institute of International Affairs) in London that served as an input for a working group discussions in Brussels.
A study tabled by the World Bank at the Brussels gathering estimates that 8.1 trillion (8.1 million million) dollars will be required for making clean energy possible in the next 24 years.
"Tens of thousands of dollars" will be required for mitigating the impact of climate change, said Steve Gorman, GEF executive coordinator and lead environment specialist of the World Bank. Technology adaptation would cost between 10 to 40 billion dollars a year.
In this context, World Bank president Paul Wolfowitz sounded reassuring in a message to the Brussels Dialogue. "A number of innovative financial instruments could complement existing ones. These new options are now being assessed and will be presented in an updated version of the World Bank’s board of directors and then at our annual meetings in Singapore , in September."
Summing up the consensus emerging from the Brussels dialogue, the statement said: "By using energy more efficiently and diversifying our energy sources we can reduce the energy intensity of our economies, reduce the stress on our energy infrastructure, strengthen development and, at the same time, reduce our greenhouse gas emissions.
"We also recognise the importance of reducing energy poverty and the need for access to energy to meet the Millennium Development Goals," the statement added. "We therefore look forward to strong outcomes from the St Petersburg summit on energy efficiency, diversification of energy sources and reducing energy poverty."
Participants at the G8 plus 5 climate change dialogue who also included representatives of the World Bank, the International Energy Agency (IEA), major energy organisations, the WWF (World Wide Fund for Nature) and IUCN (World Conservation Union), said they wanted next week’s G8 summit to:
– Adopt stringent energy efficiency standards and better labelling for energy intensive products, taking into account the different circumstances of developed and developing countries;
– Introduce financial and tax incentives to promote the development and use of energy efficient technologies;
– Use the power of public procurement to demonstrate leadership through incorporating energy efficient technologies and practices in government buildings and purchasing decisions;
– Expand and strengthen the GEF involvement in energy efficiency projects;
– Increase public awareness about the benefits of energy efficiency; and
– Promote a diverse energy mix including the further development of low carbon energy sources and wider use of renewable energy.
Studies conducted by the IEA at the behest of the G8 show that the shift to low carbon economies as demanded by the Brussels gathering is possible.
Neil Hirst, director of IEA office for energy technology and R&D (research and development) said: "A sustainable energy future is possible, but only if we act urgently and decisively to promote, develop and deploy a full mix of energy technologies."
The full mix of energy technologies, he said, includes improved energy efficiency, carbon capture and storage (CCS), renewables and — where acceptable — nuclear energy.
The G8 plus 5 climate change dialogue — initiated Feb. 24 this year with the support of British Prime Minister Tony Blair, the German government, the Chinese National People’s Congress, the World Bank and major energy corporations — is set to run through the German presidency of G8 next year and the Japanese presidency in 2008.
The Brussels gathering was the second round in the dialogue launched by the GLOBE International and Com plus Alliance of Communicators for Sustainable Development of which Inter Press Service is a member. It was originally planned to take place in St. Petersburg Jul. 7-9. But due to logistical difficulties it was moved to Brussels , said British MP Malcolm Bruce who chairs Globe International.
The Brussels dialogue was hosted and chaired by the Swedish Euro-parliamentarian Anders Wijkman, rapporteur on a post-2012 climate change agreement and former deputy secretary general of the United Nations. Co-chair was British MP Joan Ruddock who sits on the Parliament’s international development select committee.
The next round is scheduled for Feb.14-17 next year in Washington . The final two will be held in Germany and Japan in 2008.
"The aim is to provide a forum outside formal international negotiating structures for legislators, senior business leaders and other key decision makers to discuss a 2012 climate change agreement," Adam Mathews, executive director of the GLOBE International and the G8 plus 5 climate change dialogue said. (END/2006)

2.2. Blair’s energy blueprint
9 July 2006 , The Observer
Long-awaited government review stresses need for more renewables but critics blast nuclear plans.
The government will this week unveil plans for a five-fold increase in energy generation from wind, solar, tidal and agricultural sources as a key measure in its long-awaited energy review.
Proposals to raise the level of electricity produced by these sources from 4 per cent to 20 per cent of the UK’s needs, along with moves to prioritise support towards promising technologies that are currently uneconomic such as offshore wind farms, will be outlined in the document, to be published on Tuesday.
The boost will be emphasised by ministers to head off criticisms of the government’s backing for nuclear power, which forms a key part of the strategy.
In the 120-page document, the final draft of which has been seen by The Observer, the government concludes that nuclear power is now economically viable and that it should play a role in the UK ‘s future need for sources of carbon-free and secure energy. The government is concerned that without nuclear, the UK will become dependent on gas, moving from 38 per cent of today’s supply to 55 per cent by 2020, with up to 90 per cent of this imported – largely from potentially unstable regions such as the Middle East, Central Asia, Africa and Russia. Three years ago it drew the opposite conclusion in its last Energy White Paper. The review says that the closure of nuclear and coal plants over the coming decade will mean 25 gigawatts of carbon-free, secure capacity must be built by 2020 – some 30 per cent of today’s total capacity.
The review states: ‘Based on a range of possible scenarios, the economics of nuclear now look more positive than at the time of the 2003 Energy White paper.’ It adds: ‘Government considers that nuclear should have a role to play in the future of the UK generating mix, alongside other low carbon-generating options.’ Sources indicate that six modern stations, each capable of generating 1.6 gigawatts of power, are envisaged by the Department of Trade and industry.
However, the review also stresses that nuclear plants must be financed and operated by the private sector, and that there will be no subsidy to underpin them. The government’s scenarios are based on the continuation of high gas prices, which make nuclear relatively more attractive, and the emergence of a reliable and long-term market to place a ‘charge’ on carbon, the main source of greenhouse gas emissions.
Energy experts are sceptical. Dr Jim Watson, the senior fellow in the Sussex Energy Group at Sussex University , said: ‘I find it hard to see how the government can expect the market to fund this against uncertainty on energy and carbon prices.’
The review states that it will support renewables, which currently generate only 4 per cent of UK electricity, by increasing the level of the Renewables Obligation (RO), which forces power suppliers to source a given amount of their electricity from them at a given price through a system of certificates.
It will do this by:
Increasing the level of the RO. Currently there is a target to supply 15 per cent of electricity from these sources by 2015. The review states that the target will always be set above existing capacity so that investors know there is no risk of oversupply.
Creating ‘bands’ within the RO, with a higher price for technologies that are uneconomic but should create high volumes of renewable power, such as offshore wind farms and solar installations. The review admits this has been unsuccessful so far.
The review outlines a streamlined planning process in which generic nuclear reactor types can be pre-licenced and a High Court judge will be appointed to expedite local planning inquiries.
Much of the strategy relies on the establishment of a stable and predictable price for carbon, which will penalise gas and other fossil fuels. The report makes clear that this means overhauling the European Emissions Trading Scheme, which sets caps on CO2 emissions permitted by each European nation, with penalties for those that exceed them.
Investors will need some persuading, after the price of carbon fell by 70 per cent earlier this year because some EU countries, particularly Germany , set generous caps on their industries.
The paper states: ‘A clear and stable long-term carbon policy framework is important for creating the confidence and certainty that is needed to underline changes in industry behaviour.’ One industry expert was sceptical, saying: ‘The UK government is going to have to tell EU states that they must crack down on their industry to make our nuclear plants pay for themselves.’
Watson said: ‘The banks are going to want reassurance on assumptions on the gas price, the carbon price and the ability of nuclear to generate at that level. I think these numbers are optimistic.’

2.3. Lower grade uranium could hasten climate change pace
9 July 2006 , By Rob Edwards Environment Editor
AS the use of nuclear power expands, it will become increasingly ineffective at combating global warming, warns a report by an independent think tank published today.
The Oxford Research Group argues that a worldwide shortage of high- grade uranium ore will force new nuclear reactors to exploit increasingly lower-grade ores for their fuel. Because that requires more energy to extract, the process will result in ever-greater amounts of climate-wrecking pollution.
A report by the Dutch nuclear expert Jan Willem Storm van Leeuwen says that, after 2034, the grade of uranium ore being dug out of the ground will fall dramatically. “This will cause nuclear power to become increasingly inefficient and expensive, leading to an increase in carbon dioxide emissions,” he says.
By 2070 the grade of uranium ore being used will have become so poor he predicts that nuclear power will become a net energy user. At the end of 2005 the world’s known recoverable uranium resources amounted to about 3.6 million tonnes, mostly in Australia , Canada and Kazakhstan .
A similar point will be made tomorrow when the Scottish National Party (SNP) publishes its energy review. It has been written for the party by leading energy experts Stephen Salter, Kerr MacGregor and Clifford Jones.
The SNP review argues that within 50 years or less carbon dioxide emissions from nuclear power could be as high as those from gas-fired power stations. Nuclear technology also releases chlorine and fluorine which can be thousands of times more effective at causing climate chaos, it points out.
The value of nuclear power as a weapon against climate change might have been exaggerated, the review concludes. “The advantage may not be as large as has been claimed.”
The nuclear industry, however, is optimistic that new reserves of uranium will be discovered. And, if not, it will rely on the fast breeder reactor, which extracts up to 60 times more energy from uranium than conventional reactors.
According to Luis Echavárri, director-general of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD club of industrialised nations, fast reactors will be needed in 60 years’ time. They are “most attractive from a sustainable point of view”, he said.
But the industry’s view is dismissed by the Green MSP Chris Ballance. The fast reactor was a “discredited technology across the world”, he said. “And building nuclear power stations to tackle climate change is about as much use as a chocolate fireguard.”

2.4. Germany to Help Provide Clean Energy
7 July 2006 ,!OpenDocument
Germany has become the 18th member of the international Methane to Markets Partnership, a Bush Administration initiative that promotes the recovery and use of methane to provide clean energy. Germany has strong experience, technology, and knowledge of advanced waste management practices in landfills, implementing gas pipeline rehabilitation programs in local gas distribution networks, and coal mine methane-based power projects. Germany ‘s participation in the partnership will help reduce methane emissions and promote global energy security.
"The Bush Administration has an unparalleled financial, international and domestic commitment to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. Voluntary programs, like EPA’s Methane to Markets Partnership, are achieving significant reductions by taking methane waste and turning it into wealth," said EPA Administrator Stephen L. Johnson. "By working with Germany to promote advances in clean technology, President Bush is helping turn strong economic partners into good global neighbors."
Joint commitments under Methane to Markets help meet the shared goals of reducing global methane emissions while enhancing economic growth, promoting energy security and improving the environment. By 2015, Methane to Markets has the potential to deliver annual reductions in methane emissions equal to planting 55 million acres of trees or eliminating emissions from 33 million cars in America . The United States has committed $53 million to this initiative over the next five years. Methane is a clean-burning fuel that is the main component of natural gas.
The Methane to Markets Partnership, launched by President Bush in November 2004, is a public-private partnership to advance methane recovery and use projects in four sectors: agriculture, coal mines, landfills and oil and gas systems. Member countries work in collaboration with the private sector, multilateral development banks, and other governmental and non-governmental organizations through the partnership’s project network.
More than 300 organizations from around the world have made commitments to this partnership. In addition to Germany , countries participating in Methane to Markets include Argentina , Australia , Brazil , Canada , China , Colombia , Ecuador , India , Italy , Japan , Mexico , Nigeria , Russia , South Korea , Ukraine , the United Kingdom and the United States .
General information about Methane to Markets Partnership:

2.5. Climate change evaporates from G8 agenda
5 July 2006 , Reuters
At the last G8 summit, political leaders vowed to "act with resolve and urgency" on climate change. A year on, global warming has been sidelined by concerns on how the world can satisfy its growing appetite for energy.
While analysts were not entirely convinced by Prime Minister Tony Blair’s bid to highlight climate change — a fashionable issue in Britain — during his G8 presidency, they believe Russia has all but dropped the issue.
"I don’t think this year there’s going to be any particular emphasis on climate, I would be very positively surprised if there were," said Benito Mueller, Senior Research Fellow at Britain ‘s Oxford Institute for Energy Studies.
Russia , chairing the Group of Eight for the first time and hosting a summit starting July 15, has been ambivalent about global warming which leaders at last year’s G8 summit called "a serious and long-term challenge that has the potential to affect every part of the planet."
Moscow ‘s decision in 2004 to ratify the Kyoto Protocol saved the greenhouse gas-limiting treaty from collapse, which looked likely when the United States pulled out three years earlier.
But while that was a relief to the pro-Kyoto lobby, Russia is rarely celebrated as the treaty’s saviour. President Vladimir Putin once remarked that a bit of global warming might not be that bad as people "would have to spend less money on fur coats and other warm things."
Still, Russia eventually backed Kyoto , leaving the United States , which emits around a quarter of the man-made greenhouse gas emissions, the only G8 country not to have ratified.
Disastrous effects
Greenhouse gases, like carbon dioxide (CO2), a by-product of burning fossil fuels, trap heat in the atmosphere. Scientists say that if emissions are not curbed, there will be disastrous effects, including rising sea levels, droughts and floods.
Russia has made "energy security" the main theme of the July 15-17 St. Petersburg summit. High oil prices and a stand-off between Russia and its European customers this year over gas supplies have thrown the issue to the top of the agenda.
Energy Minister Viktor Khristenko said the summit will "focus on the search for tools to reduce global energy hazards," and climate change will be part of that.
But an early draft of the summit declaration concentrates mostly on the challenges of developing supplies of energy in a volatile market rather than tackling the threat of global warming posed by an increasing use of fossil fuels.
"We’re back to the 1970s and 1980s when we just talked about security of supply — I thought we’d moved on from that," said Mueller.
The draft does encourage energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies, but not enough to satisfy environmentalists who were appalled to see the text promoting more development of fossil fuels including coal and bitumen, both potentially major sources of CO2.
"It would be laughable if the focus were on how to increase fossil fuels," said Jennifer Morgan, climate campaigner for WWF, formerly the World Wildlife Fund.
Morgan said last year’s summit had been a minor breakthrough in that all G8 leaders — including President Bush who pulled his country out of Kyoto shortly after taking office in 2001 — jointly said the problem was urgent.
Another fear for the green lobby is that the summit could give a boost to nuclear power, not least because Russia is keen to boost uranium exports and because of the G8 countries, only Germany and Italy are still opposed to the technology.


3.1. Sustainable Bioenergy – Challenges and Opportunities
October 12 and 13, Bonn , Germany , Wasserwerk – Former Parliament Building .
Bioenergy, in particular biofuels, is becoming the most rapidly booming energy sector. Driven by the recent oil price escalations and climate change, alternatives to petroleum-based fuels are an increasingly attractive option for the transport sector. At the same time, policies to promote renewable energies and reduce greenhouse gas emission in many nations are making the production of electricity and heat from biomass competitive. Some countries could benefit from significant new export opportunities in the emerging global bioenergy market.
However, the bioenergy boom also poses significant questions: How can bioenergy be developed sustainably? What are the potential impacts on agricultural land and natural habitats? What market barriers could impede its progress?
It is of vital importance that such concerns are addressed. Public and political support for bioenergy expansion depends on an overall positive contribution of bioenergy to all facets of sustainable development: environmental, economic and social development. The conference aims at discussing sustainability criteria that can serve as guidance for policymakers, civil society and business.
This international conference will be convened by the German NGO Forum Environment & Development and the United Nations Foundation. It will bring together experts from governments, NGOs, business and science for a series of dynamic presentations. Attendees will have an opportunity to participate in interactive, multi-stakeholder workshop sessions to discuss the opportunities for bioenergy, assess sustainability challenges and try to identify viable solutions for responsible utilization of this important renewable energy source.
Contact: German NGO Forum Environment & Development, Christina Pätzold, +49-228-359704, [email protected].

3.2. Carbon Conference, Crete , 14 – 17 November 2006
The Open Science Conference on the GHG Cycle in the Northern Hemisphere organised by CarboEurope-IP, CarboOcean and NitroEurope-IP, will take place from November 14-18, 2006 in Sissi-Lassithi, Crete , Greece .
Deadline for abstract submission: August 1, 2006 .
Deadline for registration for the Open Science Conference: September 22, 2006 .
Deadline for registration for the Soil Respiration Database Workshop: August 20, 2006 .
Deadline for data submissions for this workshop: September 15, 2006 .
November 9-11: International Soil Respiration Database Workshop. This workshop shall initiate the setup of an international database on soil respiration data and accessory data. It shall explore potentials and limitations and develop technical and scientific concepts. It will be supported by CarboEurope-IP and the European Science Foundation. Info and Pre-Registration: Werner Kutsch ([email protected]).
November 13-14: CarboEurope-IP and NitroEurope-IP sessions.
November 14-17: Open Science Conference, additional NitroEurope-IP sessions.
November 18: Post Conference Excursions (Greek culture, trip to field sites).
Conference WebPage:
On the webpage, you will find useful information concerning the event as well as the registration form. Please not that registration forms will be collected by Promeeting.
Call for abstracts
We invite papers for oral presentations or posters. Those interested in presenting a paper or a poster should submit an abstract in English by August 1, 2006 . The abstract should be no more than 300 words long including a title, name(s) of the author(s), affiliation(s), address(es), email-address, a text describing the problem, methods, main results, conclusions, and 3-5 key words. Please specify which of the conference sessions your abstract refers to.
The Scientific Committee will select presentations on the basis of the abstracts and will notify the authors by 1 July 2006 if their abstract was accepted for either a poster or an oral presentation. Accepted abstracts will be published in the conference proceedings.
Please note that it is planned to publish the results of the conference in a special issue of a scientific journal (e.g. Biogeosciences).

3.3. Call for Proposals – Workshop 2006 – Permit Trading in different applications
we would like to draw your attention to the fourth international research workshop "Permit trading in different applications". We particularly invite scholars from all levels (e.g. full/associated professors, senior researchers, research fellows, Dr./PhD students, post-docs, habilitation candidates, assistant/junior professors) and from different disciplines (e.g. economics, management, jurisprudence, biology/ecology, geography,…) to take part in the workshop and to present a paper.
The workshop will take place 29th November – 1st December 2006 in Lutherstadt Wittenberg/Germany. It is organized by the Chair of Environmental Economics and the Chair of Corporate Environmental Management of the University Halle-Wittenberg/Germany. The number of participants is limited to a maximum of 30 scholars. This small group shall facilitate intensive discussions.
Detailed information can be obtained from homepage: (click on “Workshop permit trading in different applications” in the menue on the left side).


4.1. The state of the environment in the coastal areas
EEA Report No 6/2006, published at:
Abstract: This report provides information on the state of the environment in the coastal areas of Europe , and provides evidence of the need for a more integrated, long-term approach. Since 1995, concern about the state of Europe ‘s coastline has led to a number of EU initiatives, which build on the concept of integrated coastal zone management (ICZM). ICZM attempts to balance the needs of development with protection of the very resources that sustain coastal economies.
It also takes into account the public’s concern about the deteriorating environmental, socio-economic and cultural state of the European coastline.


5.1. Invitation for comments – JI project in Ukraine
The Certification Body "Climate and Energy " of TÜV SÜD Industrie Service GmbH realizes a determination of the Switch from wet-to-dry process at Podilsky Cement , Ukraine .
Purpose and short description: Cement production is a highly energy intensive process that generates significant emissions of greenhouse gases, in particular CO2. There are two main sources of CO2 emissions in the cement production process. The first source is fossil fuel combustion and the second source is the chemical decomposition of the limestone into calcium oxide and carbon dioxide. The project aims to significantly decrease the emissions of the first source (fossil fuel combustion) at Podilsky Cement factory in Ukraine .
We invite all parties, stakeholders and observers in accordance with the JI rules and modalities to comment on the project on our webpage:
This project will be open for comments within the next 30 days – from July 3 to August 1, 2006 .

5.2. Call for experts
At its third meeting, the JISC requested the secretariat to launch a public call for experts to appraise determinations or participate in review teams.
The call for experts is available through the main page of the UNFCCC JI website or under the following link:
Applications shall be sent to the UNFCCC secretariat by 18 August 2006 ( 17:00 GMT ).

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